Urology is a medical discipline that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in men and women, as well as the reproductive system in men. Urologists deal with problems such as bladder infections, kidney stones, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and malignant tumors of the urogenital system. With the help of various diagnostic methods, urologists provide comprehensive care for the health of the urinary and reproductive systems.

In men, the most common problems with the prostate are: bacterial inflammation of the prostate, benign enlargement (hyperplasia) of the prostate and prostate cancer. In Serbia, about 1,250 new cases of prostate cancer are discovered every year, and it is the second most common malignant tumor in men in the world, including in Serbia, after lung cancer. In order to detect this cancer at an early stage and effectively treat it, all men over the age of 40 are recommended to undergo preventive examinations by a urologist on an annual basis.

Bacterial infections of the urinary tract are the most common in women. The most common causative agent is Escherichia coli (E. coli), which normally inhabits the intestines. In women, due to the anatomical characteristics of the female urogenital system, i.e. short urethras, it easily gets into the urinary tract and causes infection.

The most common symptoms of urological diseases:

  • Frequent urination
  • Intermittent stream of urine
  • Burning sensation when urinating
  • The appearance of blood in the urine
  • Lower back pain
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Pain during intercourse

PSA, or prostate-specific antigen, is a biomarker often used in the context of prostate health monitoring. Increased levels of PSA in the blood can indicate problems in the prostate, including possible cancer. Regular monitoring of PSA levels helps doctors detect potential prostate problems early. Men with increased risk factors for prostate cancer, such as a family history of prostate cancer, may be recommended for a PSA test even before age 50.

The most common urological diseases:

  • Urinary tract infections (including sexually transmitted infections)
  • Enlargement of the prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia)
  • Prostate cancer
  • Stones in the kidney and urinary tract
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Bladder dysfunction